The work of Langer and Applebee demonstrates that scaffolding of learning about writing is a complex process which includes specific types of moves and decision-making that teachers perform, based upon formative assessments of their students. The goal is to push students to accomplish complex and challenging writing tasks, giving them just enough support to aid achievement of proximal goals. An important element of scaffolding is a gradual release of responsibility to the students who are expected to internalize skills and thinking modeled and prompted by the more knowledgeable other so that they need fewer or, ideally, none of the supports they previously used in their performance and learning.
Click here to read the first post in the series. In recent years, many schools have raised the bar on writing instruction.
We now expect middle and high school students to do the kind of written analysis and critique that was once limited to the college classroom. When you teach English-language learners ELLsthe concern is that this kind of increased expectation can lead to an even wider achievement gap.
Consider writing in their native languages: Be sure to spend some time comparing the two versions side by side so that students can begin to see what their ideas and thought processes look like in English. Do a verbal check for understanding before students start writing to avoid confusion and frustration down the road.
Give students sentence stems: So provide a narrative-writing word bank, an argumentative word bank and an informational word bank, for example. If writing full sentences is a challenge, encourage outlining as a first step. We then worked one-on-one to form sentences. In this model, students simply divide a piece of paper into four sections to use as a graphic organizer for persuasive or informational writing.
As students progress, you can encourage them to add more details and evidence to their graphic organizers. Choose one or two skills that you want to target for each writing assignment, and focus the majority of your grading and commentary on those skills.
For English-language learners, sometimes those skills might be about language acquisition e. Want more support for your English-language learners?
You can follow her on Twitter at hannahthudson or on Facebook here. Email her at hannah weareteachers.There is little current literature that documents effective writing instruction to scaffold middle school students’ essay writing, based on a given stimulus.
Additionally, no studies have been found that documents the use of paragraph frames to scaffold middle school low achieving students’ essay writing, based on a given stimulus.
You'll see, step-by-step, how the scaffold guides the writing process to make it easier to create a forceful business document. You'll understand how to apply the scaffold to guide sentence and paragraph creation, and you'll have a chance to test and reinforce your new skills.
Writing is hard for upper elementary students. Writing a compare and contrast essay is even harder. A lot of times this gets pushed to the back burner, and we practice the skill of comparing and contrasting with things that are less frustrating and take less time – like the overused Venn Diagram.
Keywords: analytical writing, argumentation, paragraph frames, scaffolding, teacher action research. have been found that documents the use of paragraph frames to scaffold middle school low achieving students’ essay writing, based on a given stimulus.
This action research is a direct. Paragraph Structure Writing Practice for Middle and High School students - engaging materials for struggling students without all the cutesy stuff!
Try these strategies from Reading and Writing Haven to scaffold students' understanding and lead them to success. Considerations: The Writing Process: A Scaffolding Approach 5 T/TAC W&M Updated Step 3: Rough Draft The rough draft is the step where the students begin to compile all of the details into cohesive, flowing thoughts.
Encourage students to use transition words .