The Early Reading Intervention program and the Reading Recovery program are described and compared in consideration of the most recent research on components of effective programs for young struggling readers. Additionally, included within are a biography of Marie Clay, the founder of Reading Recovery, and the biographies of Dr. Reading Reading is a complex system of deriving meaning from print that requires all of the following: Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is the awareness of the sounds phonemes that make up spoken words.
Tuesday, September 29, How to Write a Literature Review in Psychology This post presents a set of principles on what makes a good literature review. The principles aim to assist students who are writing a literature review. Researchers preparing an academic publication may also find them a useful refresher.
The principles pertain to dedicated literature reviews and introduction sections of empirical reports. Good literature reviews provide a concise overview of the research on a topic. They balance the need to be concise with the desire to provide deeper analysis. They go into depth on a few articles.
The choice of which articles are based on specific reasons.
Good reasons include that: Studies that illustrate a methodology are particularly important. The limitations of a methodology can affect all studies that use the methodology.
Understanding and critiquing the methodology allows the author to assess whether the theoretical claims argued by researchers using this methodology are justified and allows the reader to understand this also. Describing an empirical study: When describing a study it is important to present only the important details.
Some details that are typically less relevant include the exact number of males and females in the study, racial breakdowns of the sample, and the exact scale used to measure the variable. If such details are reported, a persuasive argument is given explaining why these details may alter the results.
When describing research good literature reviews provide a quick snapshot of the important elements of the research and the important findings, while at the same time not wasting precious words that could be spent on other issues.
Good literature reviews base claims on empirical research. Research is critically evaluated and issues such as the following are discussed: This examination of the theoretical literature is then integrated into the conclusions reached.
Good literature reviews demonstrate an understanding of proper causal inferences. It does not matter how many cross-sectional observational studies are conducted looking at the correlation between self-efficacy and performance, this does not prove that one variable causes the other.
Before writing about causality consider whether X could cause Y, Y could cause X, or whether a third variables could cause both X and Y to covary. The best evidence for causal claims usually comes from experiments involving direct manipulation of the independent variable.
Weaker support can come from research statistically controlling for extraneous variables and longitudinal studies. Authors may argue that their data provides evidence for causal mechanisms, but at the end of the day, their research rarely allows for unambiguous causal inference.
To learn about causal inference, see this post. The four goals of science are sometimes said to be description, prediction, explanation and control. For example, if self-efficacy does not causally influence performance, then attempts by organisations to manipulate self-efficacy in the aim of improving performance may be useless.
The research literature is filled with findings of the form, there is a relationship between x and y or there is a difference between group A and group B on some variable. Good literature reviews communicate information about effect sizes e.Literature reviews are an important part of psychology research proposals and research reports.
However, sometimes literature reviews are produced as research reports in their own right. These reviews usually follow a particular format and are known as systematic reviews. The systematic review . Questions to Ask While Reading Literature The TOP!0 questions to ask when reading literature.
Print this checklist and use it as a bookmark. Selecting a topic, not writing the paper, is the hardest part of writing a competent literature review.
Some research topics are much easier to write about than others. Whether you are writing an environmental science literature review or any literature review as a stand-alone assignment or as part of your thesis or dissertation you will be already realizing the magnitude of your task.
To conduct a serious and comprehensive lit review takes a huge amount of time, and that is just to do the reading and take your notes; then you have to write up all that you. Mar 30, · Psychology research paper, similarly to this kind of writing in other sciences, has the purpose to inform the reader about experiments, theories, ideas, and arguments.
It is your goal to make complex ideas understandable and to demonstrate your psychology knowledge. A theoretical approach uncommon in major psychology literature is David Straker's, SIFT-3M model. It was created to discuss mental functioning in relation to psychological decisions (e.g., compliance).