Muslim conquests Europe in While the Roman Empire and Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the East, Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD Gradually however, the Christian religion re-asserted its influence over Western Europe. The Book of Kells.
However, the Colosseum was not actually completed and opened for business until 80 AD, during the reign of Titus. Far and away, the most important site for presenting games was the Circus Maximus, a huge stadium built around BC, which was, most notably, the domain of the frenetically popular chariot races.
The stadium, which could accommodatespectators, was yards long and yards wide; it enclosed a giant racetrack, which circled an elevated central island, or "spine", 1, feet in length, which was graced by statues, columns, fountains, and altars.
In addition to chariot races, the Circus was frequently used to host footraces, boxing and wrestling matches, and animal hunts. It was, much less frequently, used to stage gladiatorial contests, or theatrical events, which would tend to be diminished by such a massive venue.
Many racing fans, to try to improve their experience, therefore bought cushions from vendors on the way to the races, or else brought their own cushions with them.
This led to a more exciting and emotional atmosphere. Special seating, closer to the track, was reserved for Senators and nobles, although these figures were allowed to mingle with the other fans, if they preferred. Julius Caesar made a special effort to protect spectators from the effects of the sun by utilizing huge awnings vela to provide shade, and he also dug a canal, ten feet in width, in front of the lower seats to neutralize the danger of wild beasts leaping into the crowd during the venationes.
While chariot racing and animal fights were almost exclusively staged in the Circus Maximus during the days of the Roman Republic, other forms of entertainment took place in settings that were far less impressive. Although amphitheaters similar to those of ancient Greece existed, from early days, in the more heavily Greek-influenced south of Italy, and in Sicily, Rome, itself, for many years lacked a permanent theater for the presentation of plays, exhibitions of music and dance, acrobatics, and mime.
Although stages were occasionally erected in the Circus for the performance of theater events, the venue was too large and debilitating: A much more common setting for the construction of these temporary stages was in the Roman Forum, a large open space surrounded by hills, temples, and other edifices, where the Roman assemblies were accustomed to meeting.
Spectators would utilize the naturally conducive topography of the Forum to find a place to watch; later, numerous porticoes and balconies attached to the surrounding buildings were made available for spectators, and temporary stands were also erected.
These special viewing posts seem to have required tickets that must be paid for, and led to turmoil in BC, when Gaius Gracchus and his followers forcibly removed stands that had been erected in the Forum, in an effort to democratize the spectacles which were becoming increasingly taken over by the elites.
Admission to the major festivals was expected to be free, and most forms of popular entertainment, including the chariot races, gladiatorial games, animal hunts, and theater events were generally accessible to the public, free of charge, although certain choice seats were sometimes paid for by those who could afford them.
In BC, Rome came close: Attempts were made to recoup financially from this debacle by auctioning off the stone, and other materials that had been poured into the ill-fated project.
It was up to Pompey, in 55 BC, to finally drag the concept of a permanent theater past its detractors and enemies into the heart of Roman life. As a powerful general, a Triumvir, and man of tremendous wealth accrued from the spoils of war, Pompey was in a strong position to finally materialize what had long been envisioned by the open-minded, and desired by the masses.
He seemed motivated by the hope of better connecting himself to the people by means of providing a gigantic gift to their pleasure, at the same time that he hoped to permanently glorify himself, and to diminish the impact of the generosity of others, by enclosing the spectacles which they brought to the people within an enduring reminder of himself.
All Roman rulers bribed the people with bread and circuses, and yet the one [Caesar] was popular and the other [Pompey] hated. Seneca provided the answer: The people were more easily swayed by how a ruler did than by what he did, and respected the one who at least took the trouble to appear popular.
The principal auditorium cavea of his new theater had a diameter of feet, and a stage that was the length of a football field yards. Seats rising to a height of three stories sloped upwards from the "orchestra pit" and stage, and could accommodate up to 40, spectators.In this guide, we will hope to answer the above questions and delve deeper into the model of transformational leadership.
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