The fourth crusade

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The fourth crusade

Edit After the failure of the Third Crusade —there was little interest in Europe for another crusade against the Muslims. Jerusalem was now controlled by the Ayyubid dynastywhich ruled all of Syria and Egypt, except for the few cities along the coast still controlled by the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalemnow centered on Acre.

The Third Crusade had also established a kingdom on Cyprus. Pope Innocent III succeeded to the papacy inand the preaching of a new crusade became the goal of his pontificate. His call was largely ignored by the European monarchs: Thibaut was elected leader, but he died in and was replaced by an Italian count, Boniface of Montferrat.

The fourth crusade

Boniface and the other leaders sent envoys to VeniceGenoaand other city-states to negotiate a contract for transport to Egypt, the object of their crusade; one of the envoys was the future historian Geoffrey of Villehardouin.

Genoa was uninterested, but in March negotiations were opened with Venice, which agreed to The fourth crusade 33, crusaders, a very ambitious number.

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This agreement required a full year of preparation on the part of the Venetians to build numerous ships and train the sailors who would man them, all The fourth crusade while curtailing the city's commercial activities.

The crusading army was expected to comprise 4, knights as well as 4, horses9, squires, and 20, foot-soldiers. The majority of the crusading army that set out from Venice in October originated from areas within France.

Several other regions of Europe sent substantial contingents as well, such as Flanders and Montferrat. Other notable groups came from the Holy Roman Empireincluding the men under Bishop Martin of Pairis and Bishop Conrad of Halberstadttogether in alliance with the Venetian soldiers and sailors led by the doge Enrico Dandolo.

The crusade was to make directly for the centre of the Muslim world, Cairo, ready to sail on June 24 This agreement was ratified by Pope Innocent, with a solemn ban on attacks on Christian states. Siege of Zara As there was no binding agreement among the crusaders that all should sail from Venice, many chose to sail from other ports, particularly FlandersMarseillesand Genoa.

By the bulk of the crusader army was collected at Venice, though with far fewer troops than expected; 12, instead of 33, Venice had performed her part of the agreement: The Venetians, under their aged and blind Dogewould not let the crusaders leave without paying the full amount agreed to, originally 85, silver marks.

The crusaders could only pay some 51, silver marks, and that only by reducing themselves to extreme poverty. This was disastrous to the Venetians, who had halted their commerce for a great length of time to prepare this expedition.

Dandolo and the Venetians succeeded in turning the crusading movement to their own purposes as a form of repayment. Following the massacres of all foreigners in Constantinople, the Venetian merchant population had been expelled by the ruling Angelus dynasty with the support of the Greek population.

Dandolo, who joined the crusade during a public ceremony in the church of San Marco di Veneziaproposed that the crusaders pay their debts by attacking the port of Zara in Dalmatia.

Subsequent Venetian attacks were repulsed, and by the city was economically independent, under the protection of the King. Many of the Crusaders were opposed to attacking Zara, and some, including a force led by the elder Simon de Montfortrefused to participate altogether and returned home.

While the Papal Representative to the Crusade Peter Cardinal Capuano endorsed the move as necessary to prevent the crusade's complete failure, Pope Innocent was alarmed at this development and wrote a letter to the Crusading leadership threatening excommunication.The Fourth Crusade (–) was originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.

Instead, in April , the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and sacked the Christian (Eastern Orthodox) city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.

The Fourth Crusade - - The real author of the Fourth Crusade was the famous pope, Innocent III.

What Were the Crusades?

Young, enthusiastic, and ambitious for the glory of the Papacy, he revived the plans of Pope Urban II and sought once more to unite the forces of Christendom against Islam. The Fourth Crusade (–) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first conquering the powerful Egyptian Ayyubid Sultanate, the strongest Muslim nation of the time.

The Fourth Crusade and the Latin empire of Constantinople Pope Innocent III was the first pope since Urban II to be both eager and able to make the Crusade a major papal concern. In he called a new Crusade through legates and encyclical letters.

The Fourth Crusade - - The real author of the Fourth Crusade was the famous pope, Innocent III. Young, enthusiastic, and ambitious for the glory of the Papacy, he revived the plans of Pope Urban II and sought once more to unite the forces of Christendom against Islam.

The Fourth Crusade (–), also known as the Byzantine Crusade, was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt.

Instead, in April , the Crusaders of the West invaded and conquered the Christian (Eastern Orthodox) city of Constantinople, capital of the.

Crusades - HISTORY