Social and ethical issues in computing

Score table highlights Most notably, all of the laptop companies, not just Apple, scored a worst rating for likely use of tax avoidance strategies. See our spotlight on Apple and its tax avoidance. Laptop companies generally do better than mobile phone companies on Environmental Reporting. Only three companies get a worst rating — Apple, MSI and Acer — as they had fairly comprehensive reports but failed to present at least two future targets for reducing their environmental impact.

Social and ethical issues in computing

Etymology[ edit ] The term Bioethics Greek bios, life; ethos, behavior was coined in by Fritz Jahr in an article about a "bioethical imperative" regarding the use of animals and plants Social and ethical issues in computing scientific research.

Potter's work laid the foundation for global ethicsa discipline centered around the link between biology, ecology, medicine, and human values. Bioethicists often disagree among themselves over the precise limits of their discipline, debating whether the field should concern itself with the ethical evaluation of all questions involving biology and medicine, or only a subset of these questions.

Others would broaden the scope of ethical evaluation to include the morality of all actions that might help or harm organisms capable of feeling fear.

The scope of bioethics can expand with biotechnology, including cloninggene therapylife extensionhuman genetic engineeringastroethics and life in space, [5] and manipulation of basic biology through altered DNA, XNA and proteins.

The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was initially established in to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.

However, the fundamental principles announced in the Belmont Report —namely, respect for personsbeneficence and justice —have influenced the thinking of bioethicists across a wide range of issues. Others have added non-maleficence, human dignity and the sanctity of life to this list of cardinal values.

Overall, the Belmont Report has guided research in a direction focused on protecting vulnerable subjects as well as pushing for transparency between the researcher and the subject.

Research has flourished within the past 40 years and due to the advance in technology, it is thought that human subjects have outgrown the Belmont Report and the need for revision is desired.

Numerous discussion based bioethics groups exist in universities across the United States to champion exactly such goals. Many bioethicists, especially medical scholars, accord the highest priority to autonomy.

They believe that each patient should determine which course of action they consider most in line with their beliefs. In other words, the patient should always have the freedom to choose their own treatment.

Medical ethics Medical ethics is the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. The four main moral commitments are respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice.

Medical ethics tends to be understood narrowly as an applied professional ethics, whereas bioethics has a more expansive application, touching upon the philosophy of science and issues of biotechnology.

The two fields often overlap, and the distinction is more a matter of style than professional consensus. Medical ethics shares many principles with other branches of healthcare ethics, such as nursing ethics.

1) Research Goal: The goal of AI research should be to create not undirected intelligence, but beneficial intelligence. 2) Research Funding: Investments in AI should be accompanied by funding for research on ensuring its beneficial use, including thorny questions in computer science, economics, law, ethics, and social studies, such as: How can we make future AI systems highly robust, so that. Social and ethical issues in computer science social: issues about computers in society — social, political and legal Moor — “social and ethical use of new Dependable computing Failure of computer systems can have many negative effects: • death, injury (safety-critical systems). Community Networks Computers and the Environment Free/Libre Software Intellectual Property Internet Governance Participatory Design Directions and Implications of Advanced Computing Symposium Technology and Ethics News CPSR Archived Resources on Ethics Other Resources on Technology & Ethics Ethical Principles News Related to Technology and Ethics The Ten Commandments of .

A bioethicist assists the health care and research community in examining moral issues involved in our understanding of life and death, resolving ethical dilemmas in medicine and science.

Examples of this would be the topic of equality in medicine, the intersection of cultural practices and medical care, and issues of bioterrorism.

Social and ethical issues in computing

The field contains individuals trained in philosophy such as H. The field, once dominated by formally trained philosophers, has become increasingly interdisciplinarywith some critics even claiming that the methods of analytic philosophy have had a negative effect on the field's development.

Bioethics has also benefited from the process philosophy developed by Alfred North Whitehead. The JewishChristian and Muslim faiths have each developed a considerable body of literature on these matters [15].

In the case of many non-Western cultures, a strict separation of religion from philosophy does not exist. In many Asian cultures, for example, there is a lively discussion on bioethical issues. Buddhist bioethics, in general, is characterised by a naturalistic outlook that leads to a rationalistic, pragmatic approach.

Buddhist bioethicists include Damien Keown.

Social Technology & Digital Citizenship: Teaching Rights, Responsibilities and Ethical Behavior

In India, Vandana Shiva is a leading bioethicist speaking from the Hindu tradition. In Africa, and partly also in Latin America, the debate on bioethics frequently focuses on its practical relevance in the context of underdevelopment and geopolitical power relations. During this period, unique philosophical discussions on brain death and disability appeared both in the academy and journalism.

It has become a requirement for professional accreditation in many health professional programs Medicine, Nursing, Rehabilitationto have obligatory training in ethics e.

Criticism[ edit ] As a study, bioethics has also drawn criticism. For instance, Paul Farmer noted that bioethics tends to focus its attention on problems that arise from "too much care" for patients in industrialized nations, while giving little or no attention to the ethical problem of too little care for the poor.1) Research Goal: The goal of AI research should be to create not undirected intelligence, but beneficial intelligence.

2) Research Funding: Investments in AI should be accompanied by funding for research on ensuring its beneficial use, including thorny questions in computer science, economics, law, ethics, and social studies, such as: How can we make future AI systems highly robust, so that.

Many laws and federal regulations apply to youth and online social technology. Learn the rights and responsibilities of teens, the relevant laws, and what teachers and librarians need to know in order to implement them within your school.

This Web page is an electronic companion to the book Learning to Use the World Wide Web, by Ernest C. Ackermann, and published by Franklin, Beedle & Assocaites. It contains links to the Internet resources, sites, and services mentioned in the text.

1) Research Goal: The goal of AI research should be to create not undirected intelligence, but beneficial intelligence.

2) Research Funding: Investments in AI should be accompanied by funding for research on ensuring its beneficial use, including thorny questions in computer science, economics, law, ethics, and social studies, such as: How can we make future AI systems highly robust, so that.

Community Networks Computers and the Environment Free/Libre Software Intellectual Property Internet Governance Participatory Design Directions and Implications of Advanced Computing Symposium Technology and Ethics News CPSR Archived Resources on Ethics Other Resources on Technology & Ethics Ethical Principles News Related to Technology and Ethics The Ten Commandments of .

History. Before social networking sites exploded over the past decade, there were earlier forms of social network technologies that included: online multiplayer games, blog sites, newsgroups, mailings lists and dating services.

Social Technology & Digital Citizenship: Teaching Rights, Responsibilities and Ethical Behavior