Definitions[ edit ] What does it mean that something is "public"? They are opposed to the notions of private health, private education, private opinion, and private ownership. The notion of the public is intrinsically connected to the notion of the private.
He studied at the universities of Gottingen, Zurich and Bonn, and wrote a doctoral thesis on the philosophy of Schelling. His Habilitationsschrift, or post-doctoral thesis, presented at the University of Marburg, formed the basis of The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere.
It was initially rejected by the University of Frankfurt, after criticism by the social theorists Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno.
Structural Transformation was published in German in He has been a professor at the universities of Heidelburg and Frankfurt, and was director of the Max Planck institute in Starnberg until Firstly, he borrows many important terms and categories from Kant, Hegel and Marx.
Of these, Kant is perhaps the greatest influence, simply because for Habermas his work represents the "fully developed" theory of the public sphere The Marxist cultural theory of the Frankfurt School is also an important influence, particularly on the second part of the Structural Transformation.
The Frankfurt School was a group of philosophers linked to the Institute of Social Research in Frankfurt, active from the s on. Two of its most famous names were Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno.
They took the unorthodox view that the experience of totalitarianism in the Second World War showed that the lower classes, or proletariat, had become corrupted by mass Further reflections on the public sphere essay. They could no longer act as a revolutionary force.
Their pessimism about what social force might replace the proletariat increased as the twentieth century progressed. Adorno is well known for his critique of the modern "culture industry", which manipulated the public, creating consumers of the mass media, rather than critical readers. Habermas draws on this savage criticism of modern society and culture in his treatment of advertising and the press.
He argued that the Federal German constitution aimed to extend the ideas of equality and welfare, and that a socialist democratic state could emerge from its constitutional predecessor. Habermas moved away from this concept of the development of states, but acknowledges his debt to Abendroth in the dedidcation to the Structural Transformation.
It has recently become more evident in the English-speaking world, with the publication of a translation of the Structural Transformation. An important collection of essays edited by Craig Calhoun see bibliography shows wide range of responses to his work: Historians criticise the factual basis of many of his claims about the publishing industry, about economic history and bourgeois culture.
More abstract theorists challenge his assumptions about a range of issues. Feminist scholars, for example, argue that Habermas neglects the importance of gender, and of the exclusion of women from the public sphere. This is a point that Habermas has recently conceded. Theorists have attempted to work out the implications of the Structural Transformation for modern political theory.
This perhaps a more difficult task, as the second half of the book is more problematic and less satisfying than the first. They have tried to find the public sphere in America, the Far East, and a host of other unlikely places.
Given that he makes it clear that the public sphere was inseparably related to the social and economic conditions of eighteenth century Europe, these attempts do not always seem worth the effort. Habermas himself has attempted to answer his critics.
In his essay Further reflections on the public sphere, he revises his position in several ways. Firstly, he admits some problems with the historical basis of his work. He also suggests other areas for consideration, namely; one the possibility of a popular or plebian public sphere with a different social basis, in which popular culture is not merely a backdrop to representative publicity two a reconsideration of the role of women in the bourgeois public sphere three a need to develop a less pessimistic view about the modern mass public.
Some of the issues about public discourse and the role of the state raised in the Structural Transformation reemerge in later works, such as his Theory of Communicative Action and Legitimation Crisis.
Habermas has changed so many of his positions, however, that it is unwise to see his work on public sphere as a basis for his later philosophy.In his essay Further reflections on the public sphere, he revises his position in several ways..
Firstly, he admits some problems with the historical basis of his work. Firstly, he admits some problems with the historical basis of his work. In this essay, we argue that a public sphere that welcomes identity and values offers a way to bolster liberal democracy against the challenge from populist nationalism.
We further suggest that religious lawyering offers a preliminary way to assess this proposition. We build on two of Michael Sandel. further reflections on the role of religion in lawyering and in life politics in the public sphere, 78 cornell l.
rev (). 5 bruce a. green, the role of religion in lawyering and in life ii.
religion, profession, and life: the imperatwe for common aspirations. Satish Poduval, Media and the Public Domain 13th February Report: Rethinking The Public Sphere by Nancy Fraser Rethinking The Public Sphere is a response to Habermas' essay, later published in English as The Public Sphere in Habermas and the public sphere I edited by Craig Calhoun.
Thomas McCarthy 17 Further Reflections on the Public Sphere promises to enrich current work by drawing researchers from essay revisiting the structural transformation of the public sphere for this volume; Leah Florence ably helped edit that. To get a sense of the astonishingly productive impact of the work in encouraging research and reflection on the public sphere, see the studies in Calhoun and Habermas's "Further Reflections on the Public Sphere" that cite a striking number of criticisms or developments of his study.