Stolypin played an important role in restoring order and crushing opposition afterand also in introducing some reform measures that contributed to relative stability in the years leading up to WW1. Stolypin and reactionary counter-terror As a ruthless provisional governor before coming to the duma, Stolypin was well-prepared to use violence to deal with opposition in the years following Faced with an increase in radical violence in - with 3, killed by terrorists - Stolypin responded by carrying out over 1, death sentences. He also put pressure on trade unions and newspapers, and by these policies seemed to have worked with considerably less political assassinations recorded.
Russia Table of Contents Two fundamental and interdependent goals--macroeconomic stabilization and economic restructuring--mark the transition from central planning to a market-based economy.
The former entails implementing fiscal and monetary policies that promote economic growth in an environment of stable prices and exchange rates. The latter requires establishing the commercial, legal, and institutional entities--banks, private property, and commercial legal codes--that permit the economy to operate efficiently.
Opening domestic markets to foreign trade and investment, thus linking the economy with the rest of the world, is an important aid in reaching these goals. Under Gorbachev, the regime failed to address these fundamental goals. As of mid, the results were mixed. The Yeltsin Economic Program In Octobertwo months before the official collapse of the Soviet regime and two months after the August coup against the Gorbachev regime, Yeltsin and his advisers, including reform economist Yegor Gaydar, established a program of radical economic reforms.
The Russian parliament, the Supreme Soviet, also extended decree powers to the president for one year to implement the program.
The program was ambitious, and the record to date indicates that the goals for macroeconomic stabilization and economic restructuring programs may have been unrealistically high. Macroeconomic Stabilization Measures The program laid out a number of macroeconomic policy measures to achieve stabilization.
It called for sharp reductions in government spending, targeting outlays for public investment projects, defense, and producer and consumer subsidies. The program aimed at reducing the government budget deficit from its level of 20 percent of GDP to 9 percent of GDP by the second half of and to 3 percent by The government imposed new taxes, and tax collection was to be upgraded to increase state revenues.
In the monetary sphere, the economic program required the Russian Central Bank RCB to cut subsidized credits to enterprises and to restrict money supply growth. The program called for the shrinkage of inflation from 12 percent per month in to 3 percent per month in mid Economic Restructuring Measures Immediately after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was announced, the Government lifted price controls on 90 percent of consumer goods and 80 percent of intermediate goods.
It raised, but still controlled, prices on energy and food staples such as bread, sugar, vodka, and dairy products. These measures were to establish a realistic relationship between production and consumption that had been lacking in the central planning system. To encourage the development of the private sector, fundamental changes were made in the tax system, including introduction of a value-added tax VAT--see Glossary of 28 percent on most transactions, a progressive income tax, and a tax on business income; revisions in the system of import tariffs and export taxes; new taxes on domestic energy use to encourage conservation a necessary step because energy prices were still controlled ; and new taxes on oil and natural gas exports to narrow the gap between subsidized domestic prices and world prices and to prevent domestic energy shortages see Taxation, this ch.
A fixed exchange rate was to be established for the ruble, which then would become convertible. Many restrictions on foreign trade and investment also were to be lifted to expose Russia to the discipline of world prices.
Monetary and Fiscal Policies In andthe Government expanded the money supply and credits at explosive rates that led directly to high inflation and to a deterioration in the exchange rate of the ruble. In Januarythe Government clamped down on money and credit creation at the same time that it lifted price controls.
However, beginning in February the RCB loosened the reins on the money supply. In the second and third quarters ofthe money supply had increased at especially sharp rates of 34 and 30 percent, respectively, and by the end ofthe Russian money supply had increased by eighteen times.
The sharp increase in the money supply was influenced by large foreign currency deposits that state-run enterprises and individuals had built up and by the depreciation of the ruble.
Enterprises drew on these deposits to pay wages and other expenses after the Government had tightened restrictions on monetary emissions. Commercial banks monetized enterprise debts by drawing down accounts in foreign banks and drawing on privileged access to accounts in the RCB see Banking and Finance, this ch.
Government efforts to control credit expansion also proved ephemeral in the early years of the transition. Domestic credit increased about nine times between the end of and The Government restricted financing to state enterprises after it lifted controls on prices in Januarybut enterprises faced cash shortages because the decontrol of prices cut demand for their products.
Instead of curtailing production, most firms chose to build up inventories.Betweem and Russia underwent both political and economic reform. Economic reform championed by Stolypin was aiming to take peasants away from the Mir (village commune) which they belonged and to establish them as prosperous farm owners.
Open Document. Below is an essay on "To What Extent Did Russia Undergo Economic and Political Reform in the Years ?" from Anti Essays, your source for . The revolutions of and were preceded by a century of reform and reaction in Russia.
The 19th century was a tumultuous one for the empire, full of demands for change, attempts at reform and uncertain outcomes. The first significant threat to tsarist autocracy came in December , when. The last years of tsardom After Russia for some time had to pursue a cautious foreign policy in order to gain time to carry out reforms at home, if possible, partly from the legislative chambers.
The bloc called for a broad program of political reform, including the freeing of political prisoners.
IB history - Russia. Search this site. Home. Key themes/motifs in Russian history. negative effect of the mir on economic development, ii) agriculture and industry were making progress, there was some limited political reform, perhaps progress towards a more modern.
View To what extent did Russia undergo economic and political reform from HISTORY at University of California, Los Angeles. Kym Broughton To what extent did Russia undergo economic and.