Black driving paper profiling racial term while

Download While there are a handful of studies that challenge the link between school desegregation policy and positive academic outcomes, they represent only a small slice of the literature. Furthermore, these positive academic outcomes, particularly the closing of the achievement gap, make sense given that integrating schools leads to more equitable access to important resources such as structural facilities, highly qualified teachers, challenging courses, private and public funding, and social and cultural capital. The gap in SAT scores between black and white students is larger in segregated districts, and one study showed that change from complete segregation to complete integration in a district would reduce as much as one quarter of the SAT score disparity.

Black driving paper profiling racial term while

Introduction Since the s, digital inclusion discourse has come a long way in addressing the role of social context and social infrastructures in making Internet access meaningful. Scholars, such as Dailey, et al.

According to these works, digital inclusion requires attention to individual skills and know—how, social and community support systems, and results in various modes of access. With few exceptions Eubanks, ; Sandvig,; Viseu, et al.

Black driving paper profiling racial term while

Data profiling, which in general terms involves sorting through data, discovering patterns and relationships within this data, and making predictive determinations of behavior McClurg,is greatly improved by software that, for example, enables electronic commerce and online transactions.

Profiles created from online behavior are frequently analyzed alongside of databases that track offline behavior. Though not all modern—day data profiling is for ill, it transforms and facilitates the ability of state and corporate actors to use data profiles for persuasive, coercive ends. As argued by legal scholars and social scientists, like TurowSoloveHoofnagle, et al.

Black driving paper profiling racial term while

Unfortunately, much of the scholarly literature on online privacy tends to focus on the impacts of surveillant digital technologies — either upon the average consumer Turow, et al.

But, in a world where social prejudice can easily be grafted onto digital tools, members of chronically underserved communities are potentially prime candidates for exploitation: With this in mind, the goal of this paper is twofold. First, it tilts discussions about online privacy in a historical direction and connects low—tech and present—day, high—tech instances of data profiling of poor people and, especially in the United States, communities of color.

Second, it folds this longer history of data profiling into discussions about digital inclusion, which tend to view access to broadband technologies as a path to a positive, prosperous future.

The paper proceeds in three main parts.

How Racially Diverse Schools and Classrooms Can Benefit All Students

I begin by briefly reviewing three instances of surveillance which have impacted the political freedom racial profilingeconomic well—being redliningand health medical profiling of the underserved. The paper then considers commercial data profiling — specifically data profiling by lenders, brokers, and credit information companies involved in the subprime mortgage crisis — as examples of these practices extending into an online context.

The third section suggests that the problem of data profiling and the mortgage crisis relates to larger questions as to what digital inclusion means to policy—makers and whether digital inclusion can be automatically associated with positive social impacts.

The paper concludes by calling for better coordination between policy—making in the areas of digital inclusion and online privacy.

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Digital inclusion policies threaten to bring chronically underserved communities into online worlds that, as Gandy argued, reinforce and exacerbate social exclusion and inequalities.

Three cases of low—tech data profiling Throughout the course of American history, the problem of corporate and state surveillance and exploitation of chronically underserved communities has appeared in stark terms and been the cause of moral outrage.

Among the most well—known cases in American history are those of racial profiling, redlining, and medical profiling. Each represents an instance where corporate or state actors used social sorting techniques to classify and exclude individuals and groups from political, social, and economic well—being.

The first of these, racial profiling, refers to the categorizing, monitoring, and control of individuals based on racial or ethnic characteristics, usually under the pretense of maintaining social order [ 3 ].Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and Blacks were disproportionately likely to commit homicide and to be the victims.

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In the offending rate for blacks was seven times higher than for whites and the victimisation rate was six. Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and As well, given the grave concerns about racial disproportionality in child welfare, the OHRC is concerned that Indigenous, Black and other racialized children may not equally enjoy the rights provided for under international human rights standards.

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