The cyclical pattern of how hegemonic masculinity is produced, reproduced, and perpetuated Terry Kupers of The Wright Institute describes the concept of hegemonic masculinity in these terms:
Overview[ edit ] Masculine qualities and roles are considered typical of, appropriate for, and expected of boys and men. The concept of masculinity varies historically and culturally; although the dandy was seen as a 19th-century ideal of masculinity, he is considered effeminate by modern standards.
Levant 's Masculinity Reconstructed, are "avoidance of femininity ; restricted emotions; sex disconnected from intimacy; pursuit of achievement and status; self-reliance; strength and aggressionand homophobia ".
Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior. Those exhibiting both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynousand feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification.
This void was questioned during the late s, when women's history began to analyze gender and women to deepen the female experience. Productive gender examined its role in creating power relationships, and produced gender explored the use and change of gender throughout history.
This has influenced the field of masculinity, as seen in Pierre Bourdieu's definition of masculinity: Connell wrote that these initial works were marked by a "high level of generality" in "broad surveys of cultural norms". The scholarship was aware of contemporary societal changes aiming to understand and evolve or liberate the male role in response to feminism.
Throughout history, men have met exacting cultural standards.
Kate Cooper wrote about ancient concepts of femininity, "Wherever a woman is mentioned a man's character is being judged — and along with it what he stands for.
Legends of ancient heroes include the Epic of Gilgameshthe Iliad and the Odyssey.
The stories demonstrate qualities in the hero which inspire respectsuch as wisdom and courage: The Anglo-Saxons Hengest and Horsa [ citation needed ] and Beowulf are examples of medieval masculine ideals.
According to David Rosen, the traditional view of scholars such as J. Tolkien that Beowulf is a tale of medieval heroism overlooks the similarities between Beowulf and the monster Grendel.
The masculinity exemplified by Beowulf "cut[s] men off from women, other men, passion and the household". Scottish philosopher Thomas Carlyle wrote in Despite women's increasing participation in the paid labor force and contributions to family income, men's identities remained centered on their working lives and specifically their economic contributions.
In an important sense there is only one complete unblushing male in America: Characteristic of present-day masculinity is men's willingness to counter stereotypes.
Regardless of age or nationality, men more frequently rank good health, a harmonious family life and a good relationship with their spouse or partner as important to their quality of life. In sociologythis labeling is known as gender assumptions and is part of socialization to meet the mores of a society.
Non-standard behavior may be considered indicative of homosexualitydespite the fact that gender expression, gender identity and sexual orientation are widely accepted as distinct concepts. Although social conditioning is believed to play a role, psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung believed that aspects of "feminine" and "masculine" identity are subconsciously present in all human males.
All human cultures seem to encourage gender roles in literature, costume and song; examples may include the epics of Homerthe Hengist and Horsa tales and the normative commentaries of Confucius. Nature versus nurture[ edit ] Main article: Nature versus nurture The sources of gender identity are debated.Femininity BIBLIOGRAPHY  Femininity is commonly understood to refer to a collection of qualities or attributes associated with women in distinction from men, whose own qualities are signified by the antonym masculinity.
Quinn, Emma Foye, "Sexing the Male: Manifestations of Masculinity in Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights, and Villette" ().Honors Theses.
understanding of femininity and masculinity as defined in relation to each other, the Brontë provides insight into the contemporary discourse on the proper male role, and I will use this type.
Sep 17, · Results. In the scales of masculinity, MF‐GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM‐GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls.
In femininity scales, MF‐GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM‐GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in.
Yet, research that focuses on teachers' perceptions of masculinity vs. femininity in educational leadership is almost non-existent, leading, therefore, to a gap in knowledge regarding what masculinity and femininity of school principalship mean in the eyes of teachers. Masculinity and femininity (which are gender constructs) exist on a related continuum and, in modern times, sport operates to police the very strict boundaries between these two, pushing definitions to relative polar opposites.
Masculinity Essay Examples.
An Introduction to the Proper Definitions of Masculinity and Femininity. 1, words. 2 pages. An Essay on Femininity, Masculinity and Oppression. 1, words. 4 pages. The Perceptions on the Roles of Femininity and Masculinity in Shaw and Lee's Article Women's Voices, Feminist Visions: Classic and.