The Constitution is silent on this graver question. If the noblest goal of affirmative action is to reduce the disparity of fortune between the races, that effort has clearly fallen short. The gap in college completion rates between whites and blacks aged 25 to 29 grew nearly six-fold between anddata from the federal Digest of Education Statistics show. Indeed it has widened even during the affirmative-action era.
Education Program Affirmative action policies are those in which an institution or organization actively engages in efforts to improve opportunities for historically excluded groups in American society.
Affirmative action policies often focus on employment and education. In institutions of higher education, affirmative action refers to admission policies that provide equal access to education for those groups that have been historically excluded or underrepresented, such as women and minorities.
Controversy surrounding the constitutionality of affirmative action programs has made the topic one of heated debate.
Background on Affirmative Action Affirmative action is an outcome of the 's Civil Rights Movement, intended to provide equal opportunities for members of minority groups and women in education and employment. InPresident Kennedy was the first to use the term "affirmative action" in an Executive Order that directed government contractors to take "affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.
Affirmative action policies initially focused on improving opportunities for African Americans in employment and education.
Board of Education decision in outlawing school segregation and the Civil Rights Act of improved life prospects for African Americans. Inhowever, only five percent of undergraduate students, one percent of law students, and two percent of medical students in the country were African American.
President Lyndon Johnson, an advocate for affirmative action, signed an Executive Order in that required government contractors to use affirmative action policies in their hiring to increase the number of minority employees.
In the following years, colleges and universities began adopting similar recruitment policies, and over time the enrollment rates for African American and Latino students increased steadily.
According to data from the National Center on Education Statistics NCESin70 percent of white high school graduates immediately enrolled in college, compared to 56 percent of African American graduates and 61 percent of Hispanic graduates.
The updated report finds that in69 percent of white high school graduates immediately enrolled in college, compared to 65 percent of African American graduates and 63 percent of Hispanic graduates. The Affirmative Action Debate The use of race as a factor in the college admissions process has been, and continues to be, a hotly debated topic.
Supporters of affirmative action make the following arguments: Affirmative action is more of a process than just an admissions policy.
Colleges and universities reach out to groups that are underrepresented and urge students to apply. Institutions often offer financial aid to underrepresented students and provide on-campus support programs to improve their academic success. Affirmative action programs have resulted in doubling or tripling the number of minority applications to colleges or universities, and have made colleges and universities more representative of their surrounding community.
Statistics show that after California abolished its affirmative action programs inthe minority student admissions at UC Berkeley fell 61 percent, and minority admissions at UCLA fell 36 percent. After Texas abolished its affirmative action program inRice University's freshman class had 46 percent fewer African-Americans and 22 percent fewer Hispanic students.
Graduates who benefited from affirmative action programs say that they have received better jobs, earned more money, and ultimately are living better lives because of the opportunity they received. Diversity in higher education provides an educational advantage for all students, both personally and intellectually.
We exist in a global, multicultural society, and in order to achieve success, employers and employees must be able to work effectively with the diverse society that surrounds them. Affirmative action policies are necessary in order to compensate for centuries of racial, social, and economic oppression.
Generally, individuals with higher socioeconomic status have more opportunities than those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Supporters believe that certain racial or ethnic groups are disadvantaged because they are frequently in lower income brackets and consequently are not exposed to the same resources as students from higher socioeconomic classes.
Affirmative action was created to ensure fair admission practices and to rectify a long period of racial discrimination. The policy is outdated, however, and causes a form of reverse discrimination by favoring one group over another, based on racial preference rather than academic achievement.
Further, there is concern that minority groups may be stigmatized and treated differently by peers and professors who may believe that the success of minority groups in higher education institutions is unearned.
Likewise, the programs may be illegal under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act ofwhich prohibits discrimination based on race, color or national origin by recipients of federal financial assistance.
Affirmative action policies lower standards and make students less accountable. If standards for test scores, grade point average, etc. Affirmative action policies do not necessarily help economically disadvantaged students. A study by the Hoover Institution found that affirmative action tends to benefit middle- and upper-class minorities.
Many opponents believe that diversity in higher education is extremely important, but that affirmative action only serves to amplify racial prejudice. Because there is no correlation between skin color and intelligence, affirmative action programs are unnecessary.Top Ten Reasons Affirmative Action Should be Eliminated Top 10 Reasons Affirmative Action Is a Bad Idea Affirmative action is the policy of giving preferential treatment to minorities, women, and other underrepresented groups.
Bollinger, but affirmative action was upheld in the U.S. Supreme Court case of Grutter v. Bollinger. Universities can consider race but only as a part of a more holistic review that considers other individualized factors.
Support of affirmative action policies is . The Continued Need for Affirmative Action The two most commonly cited reasons for the continued need of affirmative action are the need to counteract the effects of present racial discrimination and to provide reparations for the lingering effects of .
Watch video · Though affirmative action in college admissions for African Americans has been losing support in the United States for some time, with supposed “colorblind” .
Historically, affirmative action-like programs emerged from the need to provide reparations to slaves newly freed as a result of the Emancipation Proclamation of (3) The first initiative was the formation of the Freedmen's Bureau, which confiscated the land .
For federal contractors and subcontractors, affirmative action must be taken by covered employers to recruit and advance qualified minorities, women, persons with disabilities, and covered veterans. Affirmative actions include training programs, outreach efforts, and other positive steps.